Soldiers of the Free French Forces (Forces françaises libres), military units who joined “Free France” (la France libre), the Resistance organisation founded by Charles de Gaulle in 1940, assist in mopping up pockets of the German garrison in Paris just prior to Germany’s capitulation and withdrawal from the city. Paris, Île-de-France, France. 16 August 1944.
A sentry of the French Resistance keeps an eye out for German and French collaborationist snipers during the Battle for Paris. The Liberation of Paris began with an uprising by the French Resistance against the German garrison on 19 August 1944 and lasted until the surrender of the occupying German forces on 25 August. Paris, France. 23 August 1944. Image taken by Pierre Jahan.
Marlene Dietrich for Harper’s Bazaar by Richard Avedon,1948.
A$AP Rocky & Chanel Iman for Vogue September 2014
They look so good
oh my god
Uncredited Photographer French Resistance Fighters Arresting Nazi Soldiers During the Liberation of Paris August, 1944
Pakeezah is thus an iconic film. It is the epitome of Muslim romanticism. It has delicacy and glamour. It has the Urdu language as one of its decorations, with songs which are poems, and dances which are a tribute to the art form itself. Its story belongs to a certain time, a certain culture and has a definite style; a style which owes everything to Lucknow; not the real, historical city but the city of Muslim imagination. It is a tribute to a culture which once reigned over north India with its rules of etiquette, its elaborate metaphors for transactions between the sexes, its opulence and its luxuriousness. Pakeezah, Meghnad Desai.
The Muslim Social-1961-1970
There is a lot that is modern in the 1960s in India. Even the films look outwards and are set in Tokyo, Paris, London and the like. There are exceptions however - e.g. the Muslim socials of the 1960s. Almost all of them were based on a mythologised culture of andaaz and nazakat and feature a good deal of poetry - often composed and spoken by female characters - and Urdu dialogue. The costumes of these films influenced fashions, none more so than Mere Mehboob (still in pic 3). Especially the periodic revival of shararas and ghararas. And sitara work dupattas at the very least:)
There were outliers e.g. Dharmputra (pic 2), which dealt with partition but on the whole the films are light romances evoking a pre-partition culture. The other film which is an outlier is Pakeezah (pic 6). While arguably the pinnacle of the form, it is more of a 50s film that was taken up in the 1960s and finally screened in 1972. Its fame rests on many things, including its music. That music, while rooted in the culture the Muslim social tried to recreate, was so old-fashioned in the 1960s that its composer, Ghulam Mohammed, died in extreme poverty and obscurity in 1968 unable to find work*. Pakeezah itself had a tepid opening, its success and iconic status a result of Meena Kumari's death.